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Hyderabad Sindh

 

The 2nd Biggest City of Sindh. and and 5th largest in Pakistan. In olden days Hyderabad City name was "Neroon Kot" by Ghulam Shah Kalhora. There is a big river called "River Indus" There are two bridge over this river one of this bridge joints Hyderabad with Jamshoro, where there are 1st, Sindh University 2nd, Liaquat Medical College Jamshoro. The 2nd bridge joints Hyderabad with Kotri City. which is fully industrial city. There are 2 Forts Pacca Qilla & Kacha Qilla. in the olden days the rules of Sindh use to live in there forts. There are many religious Tombs and Dargah at Hyderabad.

History Of Hyderabad

Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768 over the ruins of Neroon Kot (Nerun or Nerun Kot) (meaning the place of Neroon), a small fishing village on the banks of River Indus named after its ruler Neroon. A formal concept of the city was laid out by his son, Sarfraz Khan in 1782. When the foundations were laid, the city obtained the nickname Heart of the Mehran as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself was said to have fallen in love with the city. In 1768 he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The fort was built using fire-baked bricks giving it the name Pacco Qillo meaning the strong fort.
After the death of the last Kalhoro, the Talpur dynasty ruled the region. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the Land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers were responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their rule. The four were called char yar, Sindhi for the four friends.
The Baloch Talpur rule lasted almost over 50 years and in 1843, Talpurs faced a greater threat, the invasion of expanding British colonial empire. The British wanted to annex Sindh due to their strategic interests in the Punjab region and Afghanistan. The Talpur Amir signed an peace agreement that gave significant concessions to the British. After signing this peace agreement Amir Talpur demobilized his volunteer army. The British General Napier also started to march his army back towards Bombay. When the General Napier heard that the Talpur Amir had demobilised his Baloch army he turned back his army and again threatened Hyderabad. The peace agreement with Talpur Amir was of no consequence compared to the strategic interests of the British colonial empire. The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. General Napier was firmly determined in conquering Sindh and plundering Hyderabad. The battle ended on 24 March 1843 when the Talpur Amirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The Amirs of Hyderabad suffered great loss, their Fort was plundered, thousands were killed and Amirs themselves were exiled to Rangoon, Burma - never to see Sindh again. The British made the city part of the Bombay Presidency of British colonial empire.
At the time of independence of Pakistan in 1947, the Muhajirs began a massive incursion into Pakistan and many settled in the city of Hyderabad causing extensive pressure by overburdening the resources of the mainly Sindhi Muslim city. These refugee Muslim lost everything in India and were settled in refugee camps. This hostility translated into communal tension in Hyderabad between Muslim refugees and local Hindus; and later the MQM entered into conflict with the city's indigenous Sindhi Muslims,
After independence of Pakistan, Hindus expected to remain in Sindh, however were forced to flee due to communal violence. Sindhi Hindus had expected to return to their Sindh, once the violence settled but it was not possible.
The massive migration of (Muhajirs) who began mass migration into Pakistan after independence of Pakistan in 1947 raised the population levels of the city to extremes. The late 1980s saw a black period in the history of Hyderabad as riots and violence broke out between the MQM, led by Altaf Hussain, and the indigenous Sindhi population of the city. Many historical and cultural monuments of Sindhi heritage were destroyed[citation needed] and remain occupied by illegal Muhajir settlements.



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